One way to minimize misunderstandings is to have a plan, articulate the plan, and make sure everyone directly involved understands the plan so they can be useful in its execution. Whenever possible, utilize faceto- face communications so that gestures, voice inflection, and other meaningful signals can be conveyed along with the words. Use specific, unambiguous instructions to avoid misunderstandings. For instance, when discussing the route to follow while you catch a nap don't say, "Carry on down the bay and call me around four o'clock." It might result in you awakening to a thump. Instead try this: "I want to pass one mile west of Shag Rock, right here." Clarify your meaning by pointing to the chart and the trackline, which, with infinite foresight, you have laid down in advance. With paper charts, follow up with: "Plot a position every half hour and check it by radar." Now this person knows what to do and you've conveyed the minimum level of expected diligence.